Crowdfunding e Resiliência das Comunidades: Estudo de caso

Isabel Ramos, Ana Isabel Lemos

Resumo


O crowdfunding permite a angariação de financiamento (funding) através de pequenos contributos de um grupo de pessoas (a crowd) com o intermediário de plataforma na web. Este recurso tem sido cada vez mais utilizado como uma alternativa eficaz aos mecanismos tradicionais de financiamento para projetos que de outra forma não sairiam do papel devido à redução do número de empréstimos atribuídos por parte das instituições bancárias.

Com este trabalho pretendeu-se estudar o papel que o crowdfunding pode assumir no desenvolvimento da resiliência das comunidades a crises económicas. Através do estudo de um caso fez-se uma análise exploratória sobre o seu impacte na resiliência das comunidades tendo como resultados a proposta de interligação entre as práticas de crowdfunding e resiliência das comunidades.

Por ser um fenómeno recente, existe pouca investigação sobre o assunto, sobretudo estudos portugueses. O trabalho realizado permitiu adquirir um primeiro entendimento da interligação entre crowdfunding e resiliência das comunidades, apresentando uma primeira lista de indicadores que podem ser usados em estudos futuros para medir o impacte das iniciativas de crowdfunding.


Texto Completo:

PDF

Referências


Agrawal, A. K., Catalini, C., & Goldfarb, A., Some simple economics of crowdfunding (No. w19133). National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013.

Agrawal, A. K., Catalini, C., & Goldfarb, A., The Geography of Crowdfunding (No. 16820), Cambridge. Obtido de http://www.nber.org/papers/w16820, 2011.

Aiginger, K., Strengthening the resilience of an economy: Enlarging the menu of stabilisation policy to prevent another crisis. Intereconomics, 44(5). doi:10.1007/s10272-009-0308-9, 2009, 309–316.

Alfiero, S., Casalegno, C., Indelicato, A., Rainero, C., Secinaro, S.,Tradori, V., & Venuti, F., Communication as the Basis for a Sustainable Crowdfunding : The Italian Case. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(5). Obtido de http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_4_No_5_1_March_2014/7.pdf, 2014, 46-55.

Assembleia-da-República, Projeto de lei n.o419/XII (2o), 2013, 13 – 20.

Bayus, B. L., Crowdfunding Creative Ideas: The Dynamics of Project Backers in Kickstarter. UNC Kenan-Flagler Research Paper No. 2013-15, 2014.

Belleflamme, P., Lambert, T., & Schwienbacher, A., Crowdfunding : An Industrial Organization. Prepared for the Workshop Digital Business Models: Understanding Strategies’, 2010.

Belleflamme, P., Lambert, T., & Schwienbacher, A., Crowdfunding: Tapping the right crowd. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(5). doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2013.07.003, 2013a, 585-609.

Belleflamme, P., Lambert, T., & Schwienbacher, A., Individual Crowdfunding Practices. Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, 2013b.

Béné, C., Wood, R. G., Newsham, A., & Davies, M., Resilience: new utopia or new tyranny? Reflection about the potentials and limits of the concept of resilience in relation to vulnerability reduction programmes. IDS Working Paper (Vol. 2012). doi:10.1111/j.2040-0209.2012.00405.x, 2012.

Bretschneider, U., Knaub, K., & Wieck, E., Motivations For Crowdfunding: What Drives The Crowd To Invest In Start- Ups? In Twenty Second European Conference on Information Systems, Tel Aviv, 2014, 1-11.

Briguglio, L., Cordina, G., Bugeja, S., & Farrugia, N., Conceptualizing and measuring economic resilience. Building the Economic Resilience of Small States. Malta. Obtido de https://secure.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0013/44122/resilience index.pdf, 2006.

Canadian Centre for Community Renewal, The Community Resilience Manual. Obtido de http://communityrenewal.ca/community-resilience manual, 2000

Comissão Europeia, Crowdfunding in the EU - Exploring the added value of potential EU action. Brussels, 2013.

Comissão Europeia, Crowdfunding Explained, 2015.

Cox, E., Broadbridge, A., & Raikes, L., Building Economic Resilience? An Analysis of Local Enterprise Partnerships’ Plans. Obtido de http://www.ippr.org/assets/media/publications/pdf/Building-economic resilience_May2014.pdf, 2014.

Cumming, D. J., Leboeuf, G., & Schwienbacher, A., Crowdfunding Models: Keep-it-All vs. All-or-Nothing. SSRN Working Paper No. 2447567,(December 2014). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2447567, 2014, 1-33.

Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J., A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18(4). doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.013, 2008, 598–606.

Cutter, S. L., Burton, C. G., & Emrich, C. T., Disaster Resilience Indicators for Benchmarking Baseline Conditions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 7(1). doi:10.2202/1547-7355.1732, 2010a.

Cutter, S. L., Emrich, C. T., & Burton, C. G., Baseline Indicators for Disaster Resilient Communities, 2010b.

De Buysere, K., Gajda, O., Kleverlaan, R., Marom, D., & Klaes, M., A framework for European crowdfunding. European Crowdfunding Network (ECN), Obtido de www. europecrowdfunding. org/european_crowdfunding_framework, 61, 2012.

Duval, R., & Vogel, L., Economic resilience to shocks: The role of structural policies. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, (44), 2008, 201 238.

European-Commission., Crowdfunding in the EU - Exploring the added value of potential EU action, Brussels, 2013.

European-Commission., Crowdfunding Explained 2015. Frankenberger, T., Mueller, M., Spangler, T., & Alexander, S., Community Resilience: Conceptual Framework and Measurement Feed the Future Learning Agenda. Rockville, MD: Westat, 2013.

Gerber, E. M., & Hui, J. S., Crowdfunding: Motivations and Deterrents for Participation. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 20(6). doi:10.1145/2530540, 2013, 1–37.

Gerber, E. M., & Hui, J. S., To crowdfund or not. In Collective Intelligence 2014, 2014, 1-4.

Gerber, E. M., Hui, J. S., & Kuo, P., Crowdfunding : Why People Are Motivated to Post and Fund Projects on Crowdfunding Platforms. In ACM SIGCHI Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW), Seattle, 2012.

Giudici, G., Nava, R., Rossi-Lamastra, C., & Verecondo, C., Crowdfunding : The New Frontier for Financing Entrepreneurship? SSRN Electronic Journal, 2012, 1–13.

Giudici, G., & Rossi-Lamastra, C., Why Crowdfunding Projects can Succeed: The Role of Proponents’ Individual and Territorial Social Capital, Milano, 2013.

Greenberg, M., Hui, J. S., & Gerber, E. M., Crowdfunding : A Resource Exchange Perspective. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Extended Abstracts, Paris, 2013, 883-888.

Greenham, T., Cox, E., & Ryan-Collins, J., Mapping Economic Resilience. York. Obtido de http://www.friendsprovidentfoundation.org/wp content/uploads/2013/12/nef-Mapping-Economic-Resilience-3- literature review.pdf, 2013.

Hallegatte, S., Economic Resilience: Definition and Measurement (No. 6852), 2014.

Hemer, J., A snapshot on crowdfunding (No. R2/2011). Working papers firms and region, 2011.

Holling, C. S., Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4(1). doi:10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245, 1973, 1-23.

Hui, J. S., Gerber, E. M., & Gergle, D., Understanding and Leveraging Social Networks for Crowdfunding: Opportunities and Challenges. In Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Designing interactive systems. Vancouver, 2014, 4-7.

Hui, J. S., Gerber, E. M., & Greenberg, M., Easy Money? The Demands of Crowdfunding Work. Technical Report No. 4, 2012.

Hui, J. S., Greenberg, M., & Gerber, E. M., Understanding Crowdfunding Work : Implications for Support Tools. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Extended Abstracts. doi:10.1145/2468356.2468515, 2013.

Hui, J. S., Greenberg, M., & Gerber, E. M., Understanding the role of community in crowdfunding work. 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing - CSCW ’14. doi:10.1145/2531602.2531715, 2014, 62-74.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies,Characteristics of a Safe and Resilient Community Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Study. ARUP International Development. doi:1224200 E, 2012.

Joanna, W., & Alison, M., Assessing the links between First Aid training and Community Resilience. First Aid Education Team. Obtido de http://www.redcross.org.uk/~/media/BritishRedCross/Documents/What we do/Firstaid/Assessing the links between first aid training and community resilience.pdf, 2011.

Kappel, T., Ex Ante Crowdfunding and the Recording Industry: A Model for the U.S. Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, 29, 2009, 375–386.

Kirmayer, L. J., Sehdev, M., Whitley, R., Dandeneau, S. F., & Isaac, C., Community Resilience: Models, Metaphors and Measures. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 5(1), doi:10.1073/pnas.0803780105, 2009, 62–117.

Lambert, T., & Schwienbacher, A., An Empirical Analysis of Crowdfunding. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2010, 1–23.

Lin, Y., Boh, W. F., & Goh, K. H., How Different are Crowdfunders? SRRN Working Paper No 2397571. Obtido de http://ssrn.com/abstract=2397571, 2014.

Magis, K., Community Resilience: An Indicator of Social Sustainability. Society & Natural Resources, An International Journal, 23. doi:10.1080/08941920903305674, 2010, 401–416.

Massolution, 2013 CF The crowdfunding industry report, 2013.

Moisseyev, A., Effect of social media on crowdfunding project results. Obtido de http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/businessdiss/39/, 2013.

Mollick, E., The dynamics of crowdfunding: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(1). doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2013.06.005, 2013, 1-16.

Mollick, E. R., & Kuppuswamy, V., After the campaign: Outcomes of crowdfunding. UNC Kenan-Flagler Research

Paper, (2376997), 2014.

Morrow, B. H., Community Resilience: A Social Justice Perspective CARRI Research Report 4. Obtido de http://www.resilientus.org/wp content/uploads/2013/03/FINAL_MORROW_9-25 08_1223482348.pdf,2008.

Nesta, An Introduction to Crowdfunding (Vol. 2012), London. Obtido de http://www.ema. eu/fileadmin/content/REALISE_IT_2/REALISE_IT_3/IntroToCrowdfundin pdf, 2012.

Ordanini, A., Miceli, L., Pizzetti, M., & Parasuraman, A., Crowdfunding: Transforming Customers Into Investors Through Innovative Service Platforms, 2009, 1–50.

Pazowski, P., & Czudec, W., Economic Prospects and Conditions of Crowdfunding. In Management Knowledge and Learning International Conference, 2014, 1079–1088.

Poortinga, W., Community resilience and health: the role of bonding, bridging, and linking aspects of social capital. Health & Place, 18(2). doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.09.017, 2012, 286–95.

Rose, A., Economic Resilience to Disasters. CREATE Research Archive, 2009.

Rose, A., & Krausmann, E., An economic framework for the development of a resilience index for business recovery. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 5. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.08.003, 2013, 73-83.

Sabbag, P. Y., Bernardi Jr., P., Goldszmidt, R., & Zambaldi, F., Validação de Escala para Mensurar Resiliência por Meio da Teoria de Resposta ao Item (TRI). XXXIV Encontro Da ANPAD, 2010, 1 – 15.

Santos, J. V., Crowdfunding como forma de capitalização das sociedades. Revista Electrónica de Direito n.o2. Obtido de www.cije.up.pt/revistared, 2015.

Schwienbacher, A., & Larralde, B., Crowdfunding of Small Entrepreneurial Ventures. In Handbook of Entrepreneurial Finance (Vol. 2010). Oxford University Press, 2010, 1-23.

Sharp, A. M., Crowdfunding Success Factors. International Research Journal of Applied Finance, V (7). Obtido de https://irjaf.com/uploads/IRJAF_Vol_V_Issue_7_July_2014_Final.pdf#pa e=4, 2014, 822-832.

Silva, M. R. S. Da, Elsen, I., & Lacharité, C., Resiliência: concepções, fatores associados e problemas relativos à construção do conhecimento na área. Paidéia, 13(26), 2003, 147–156.

Stemler, A. R., The JOBS Act and crowdfunding: Harnessing the power - and money - of the masses. Business Horizons, 56(3). doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2013.01.007, 2013, 271-275.

Ungar, M., Community resilience for youth and families: Facilitative physical and social capital in contexts of adversity. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(9). doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.027, 2011, 1742-1748.

USAID, How Resilient is Your Coastal Community? A guide for evaluating coastal community resilience to tsunamis and other hazards. Obtido de http://www.coast.noaa.gov/regions/pacific/resources/resilience/coastal community_resilience_guide.pdf, 2007.

Vella, K., Dale, A., Cottrell, A., & Gooch, M., Assessing community resilience to climate change. 12th International Coral Reef Symposium (July), 5. Obtido de http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/22405/, 2012.

Walker, B., Pearson, L., Harris, M., Maler, K-G., i, C-Z., Biggs, R., and Baynes, T., Incorporating resilience in the assessment of inclusive wealth: an example from south east Australia. Environmental and Resource Economics 45 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10640-009-9311 7, 2010, 183-202.

Wash, R., & Solomon, J., Coordinating donors on crowdfunding websites. Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing - CSCW ’14. doi:10.1145/2531602.2531678, 2014, 38-48.

Wilson, G., Community resilience, globalization, and transitional pathways of decision-making. Geoforum, 43(6). doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2012.03.008, 2012, 1218-1231.

Winderl, T., Disaster resilience measurements: stocktaking of ongoing efforts in developing systems for measuring resilience, United Nations Development Programme. Obtido de http://www.preventionweb.net/files/37916_disasterresiliencemeasurementsundpt.pdf, 2014, 1-59.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18803/capsi.v16.212-230

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.